DIESEL FUEL (GAS OIL)

 

Diesel fuel is produced from various sources, the most common being petroleum. Other sources include biomass, animal fat, biogas, natural gas, and coal liquefaction.

 

Petroleum diesel, also called petrodiesel is the most common type of diesel fuel. It is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C (392 °F) and 350 °C (662 °F) at atmospheric pressure, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 8 and 21 carbon atoms per molecule.

 

The important properties which are used to characterize diesel fuel include cetane number (or cetane index), fuel volatility, density, viscosity, cold behavior, and sulfur content. Diesel fuel specifications differ for various fuel grades and in different countries.

 

The principal measure of diesel fuel quality is its cetane number. A cetane number is a measure of the delay of ignition of a diesel fuel. A higher cetane number indicates that the fuel ignites more readily when sprayed into hot compressed air.  European (EN 590 standard) road diesel has a minimum cetane number of 51. Diesel fuel is more efficient than gasoline because it contains 10% more energy per gallon than gasoline. But there are a few kinds of diesel fuel: Standard diesel fuel (sometimes called diesel oil) comes in two grades: Diesel #1 (or 1-D) and Diesel #2 (or 2-D). The higher the cetane number, the more volatile the fuel. Most diesel vehicles use fuel with a rating of 40 to 55.

ISO has a standard for D2 Diesel Gasoil that most oil companies used as a reference. … Historically, the sulfur content in diesel fuels for highway and nonroad vehicles was limited to 0.5% (wt.) by ASTM specifications. D2 Diesel Fuel is available with various levels of sulfur content, ranging from 10 ppm to 10000 ppm.

 

Bitumen

the experiment Test Method 30-40 40-50 60-70 85-100 100-120
Density ASTM D-7 06 / 1-01 / 1 06 / 1-01 / 1 06 / 1-01 / 1 5 0 / 1-1 04 / 1-01 / 1
At penetration of mm / 10, 25C degrees ASTM D-5 30-40 40-50 60-70 85-100 100-120
Soft point ºC ASTM D-36 55-63 52-60 49-56 45-52 42-49
Tensile strength at 25 ºC cm ASTM D-113 Min 100 Min 100 Min 100 Min 100 Min 100
Flash point .C ASTM D-92 Min250 Min250 Min250 Min250 Min250
Solubility in disulfide% wt. ASTM D-4 5/99 5/99 5/99 5/99 5/99
Stain test AASHTO T 102 Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative
Weight loss due to heat% wt. ASTM D-6 Max 2/0 Max 2/0 Max 2/0 Max 2/0 Max 2/0
Effect of diffusion drop on heat,% ASTM D-6-D-5 20 Max Max20 Max20 Max20 Max20

Bitumen INFILTRATION GRADES

VG BITUMENS

In the classification based on the viscosity of bitumens according to the amount of absolute viscosity at 60 ° C or kinematic viscosity at 135 ° C, classification and specific technical criteria have been determined for each of them. Absolute viscosity is expressed in terms of pouza and kinematic viscosity is expressed in terms of centi-stokes. Classification and specifications of pure bitumen are reported in AASHTO – M226 and ASTM – D3381 standards.

Table 1-2: Technical specifications of pure bitumen in terms of viscosity at 60 ° C according to AASHTO-M226.

the experiment Degree of viscosity
5/2 AC- 5 AC- 10 AC- 20 AC- 30AC- 40AC-
Viscosity at 60 ° C, in Pooz 50 ± 250 100 ± 500 200 ± 1000 400 ± 2000 600 ± 3000 800 ± 4000
Viscosity at 135 oC, cSt, minimum 125 175 250 300 350 400
Degree of penetration at 25 oC, 100 g, 5 seconds, minimum 220 140 80 60 50 40
Flash point, Cleveland open container, ° C, minimum 163 177 219 232 232 23
Solubility in trichlorethylene,% 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99
Test on the remaining bitumen thin layer in the test:
Thermal drop,%, max 0/1 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0
Viscosity at 60 ° C, Poiss 1000 2000 4000 8000 12000 16000
Bitumen tensile, cm, at 25 ° C at a rate of 5 cm / min, minimum (1) 100 100 75 50 40 25
Stain test (depending on the case or according to the specifications) with:
Halal Nafta Negative result for all the above bitumens
Naphtha solvent – xylene, percentage of xylene Negative result for all the above bitumens
Solvent naphtha xylene, percentage of xylene Negative result for all the above bitumens

(1) If the tension at 25 ° C is less than 100 cm, it is acceptable provided that the tension at 15.6 ° C with a tension speed of 5 cm / min is at least 100 cm.

 

Table 1-3: Technical specifications of pure bitumen in terms of viscosity at 60 ° C according to AASHTO-M226

 

Residual results of Ashto 240 T test method (1) Degree of viscosity
10AR- 20AR- 40AR- 80AR- 160AR-
Viscosity at 60 ° C, Poiss 250 ± 1000 500 ± 2000 1000 ± 4000 2000 ± 8000 4000 ± 16000
Viscosity at 135 oC, cSt, minimum 140 200 275 400 550
Degree of penetration at 25 oC, 100 g, duration 5 seconds – minimum 65 40 25 20 20
Percentage of initial bitumen penetration at 25 – minimum 40 45 50 52
Bitumen tension at 25 ° C at a rate of cm / min5, cm, minimum (2) 100 (2) 100 75 75 75
Test on primary bitumen
Cleveland open container flash point, oC, minimum 205 219 227 232 238
Solubility in trichlorethylene,% 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99

(!) Ashto 240 T (bitumen thin layer test) may be used, but Ashto 240 T should be used as a comparative method.

(2) Bitumen tensile less than 100, the material will remain. If the tensile strength of 15.6 oC bitumen is at least 100.

 

Table 1-4: Technical specifications of pure bitumens in terms of viscosity at 60 ° C according to ASTM-D3381.

 

the experiment Degree of viscosity
5 / 2AC- 5AC- 10AC- 20AC- 40AC-
Viscosity at 60 ° C, Poiss 250 ± 50 500 ± 100 1000 ± 200 2000 ± 800
Viscosity at 135 oC, cSt, minimum 80 110 150 210 300
Degree of penetration at 25 oC, 100 g, 5 seconds, minimum 200 120 70 40 20
Cleveland open container flash point, oC, minimum 163 177 219 232 232
Solubility in trichlorethylene,% 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99
Test on residual bitumen:
Viscosity at 60 ° C, Poiss, max 1250 2500 5000 10000 20000
Bitumen tension at 25 oC at a speed of 5 cm / min,%, minimum (1) 100 100 50 20 10

(1) If the tension at 25 ° C is less than 100 cm, it is acceptable provided that the tension at 15.6 ° C with a tension speed of 5 cm / min is at least 100 cm.

Table 1-5: Technical specifications of pure bitumen in terms of viscosity at 60 ° C according to ASTM-D3381.

 

the experiment Degree of viscosity
5 / 2AC- 5AC- 10AC- 20AC- 30AC- 40AC-
Viscosity at 60 ° C, Poiss 250 ± 50 500 ± 100 1000 ± 200 2000 ± 400 3000 ± 600 4000 ± 800
Viscosity at 135 ° C, minimum 125 175 250 300 350 400
Infiltration at 25 oC, 100 g, for 5 seconds – minimum 220 140 80 60 50 40
The flash point of Cleveland open containers is oC-minimum 163 177 219 232 232 232
Solubility in trichlorethylene – minimum – percentage 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99
Experiment on the remaining bitumen from the thin layer of bitumen:
Viscosity at 60 ° C, maximum Poiss 1250 2500 5000 10000 15000 20000
Tensile strength at 25 oC at a speed of Cm / min5, cm, minimum (1) 100 100 75 50 20 10

(1) If the tension at 25 ° C is less than 100 cm, it is acceptable provided that the tension at 15.6 ° C with a tension speed of 5 cm / min is at least 100 cm.

Table 1-6: Technical specifications of pure bitumens in terms of viscosity at 60 ° C according to ASTM-D3381

 

Experiments on the residue of a thin layer of bitumen (1) Degree of viscosity
1000AR- 2000AR- 4000AR- 8000AR- 16000AR-
Viscosity at 60 ° C, in Pooz 1000 ± 250 2000 ± 500 4000 ± 1000 8000 ± 2000 16000 ± 4000
Viscosity at 135 oC, cSt, minimum 140 200 275 400 550
Degree of penetration at 25 oC, 100 g, duration 5 seconds, minimum 65 40 25 20 20
Percentage of degree of penetration of primary bitumen at 25 oC, minimum 40 45 50 52
Bitumen tensile at 25 oC at a rate of 5 cm / min, cm, minimum (1) 100 (2) 100 75 75 75
Experiment on the remaining bitumen from the thin layer of bitumen:
Cleveland open container flash point, oC, minimum 205 219 227 232 238
Solubility in trichlorethylene, minimum,% 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99 0/99

(1) A thin layer of bitumen may be used in the test. But bitumen thin layer testing should be used as a comparative method.

(2) It is acceptable if the tension at 25 ° C is less than 100 cm. Provided that the tension at 15.6 ° C with a tension speed of 5 cm / min is at least 100 cm.

 

Base oil

SN 500

SN 500 by Sepahan Oil Company is a base oil at upper end of the specifications for Grade I base oils which has undergone solvent refining and dewaxing processes. It offers broad blending coverage with performance capabilities in a broad range of lubricant applications including marine, automotive and industrial applications. SN 500 is available for sale in bulk and various packages including drum, flexi-tank and IBC.

SN 500  
Specification Test Method Unit Characteristic
 C & B  Visual  – Appearance
 Max 2  ASTM D-1500  – Color
 Min 10.8  ASTM D-445  mm2/s (cSt) Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
 Min 87  ASTM D-2270  – Viscosity index
 Min 235  ASTM D-92  C° Flash point
Max -3 ASTM D-97  C° Pour point

 

SN 500 HVI 

SN 500 High VI by Sepahan Oil Company is a base oil at upper end of the specifications for Grade I base oils which has undergone solvent refining and dewaxing processes. It offers broad blending coverage with performance capabilities in a broad range of lubricant applications including marine, automotive and industrial applications. SN 500 High VI is available for sale in bulk and various packages including drum, flexi-tank and IBC.

 

SN-500

High VI

Specification  Test Method  Unit Characteristic
 C & B  Visual  – Appearance
 Max 1  ASTM D-1500  – Color
10.5-11.2  ASTM D-445  mm2/s (cSt) Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
 Min 90  ASTM D-2270  – Viscosity index
 Min 245  ASTM D-92  C° Flash point
Max -6 ASTM D-97 Pour point

 

SN 600 HVI

SN 600 High VI by Sepahan Oil Company is a base oil at upper end of the specifications for Grade I base oils which has undergone solvent refining and dewaxing processes. It offers broad blending coverage with performance capabilities in a broad range of lubricant applications including marine, automotive and industrial applications. SN 600 High VI is available for sale in bulk and various packages including drum, flexi-tank and IBC.

 

 

SN-600

High VI

Specification Test Method Unit Characteristic
C & B Visual Appearance
Max 1.5 ASTM D-1500 Color
Min 12 ASTM D-445 mm2/s (cSt) Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
Min 90 ASTM D-2270 Viscosity index
Min 246 ASTM D-92 Flash point
Max -6 ASTM D-97 Pour point

 

SN 600 LVI

SN 600 Low VI by Sepahan Oil Company is a base oil at upper end of the specifications for Grade I base oils which has undergone solvent refining and dewaxing processes. It offers broad blending coverage with performance capabilities in a broad range of lubricant applications including marine, automotive and industrial applications. SN 600 Low VI is available for sale in bulk and various packages including drum, flexi-tank and IBC.

 

SN-600

Low VI

Specification  Test Method  Unit Characteristic
 C & B  Visual  – Appearance
 Max 3  ASTM D-1500  – Color
Min 12.6  ASTM D-445  mm2/s (cSt) Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
 Min 80  ASTM D-2270  – Viscosity index
 Min 235  ASTM D-92  C° Flash point
Max -3 ASTM D-97 Pour point

 

SN 150

SN 150 by Sepahan Oil Company is a base oil at upper end of the specifications for Grade I base oils which has undergone solvent refining and dewaxing processes. It offers broad blending coverage with performance capabilities in a broad range of lubricant applications including marine, automotive and industrial applications. SN 150 is available for sale in bulk and various packages including drum, flexi-tank and IBC.

 

 

SN-150
Specification  Test Method  Unit Characteristic
 C & B  Visual  – Appearance
 Max 1  ASTM D-1500  – Color
 4.7-5.7  ASTM D-445  mm2/s (cSt) Kinematic viscosity at 100°C
 Min 90  ASTM D-2270  – Viscosity index
 Min 200  ASTM D-92  C° Flash point
Max -6 ASTM D-97 Pour point